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A History of the American Musical Theatre: No Business Like It, Hurwitz Nathaniel

Автор: Shields David S.
Название: Still: American Silent Motion Picture Photography
ISBN: 022601326X ISBN-13(EAN): 9780226013268
Издательство: Wiley
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Цена: 4678 р.
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Автор: Kennedy David M.
Название: Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945
ISBN: 0195144031 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780195144031
Издательство: Oxford Academ
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Цена: 1954 р.
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Автор: Spellman Susan V.
Название: Cornering the Market: Independent Grocers and Innovation in American Small Business
ISBN: 0199384274 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780199384273
Издательство: Oxford Academ
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Цена: 7477 р.
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Автор: Wilkins
Название: American Business Abroad
ISBN: 1107007976 ISBN-13(EAN): 9781107007970
Издательство: Cambridge Academ
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Цена: 5982 р.
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Автор: Sheingate Adam
Название: Building a Business of Politics: The Rise of Political Consulting and the Transformation of American Democracy
ISBN: 0190217197 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780190217198
Издательство: Oxford Academ
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Цена: 2760 р.
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Автор: Bordman, Gerald; Norton, Richard
Название: American Musical Theatre
ISBN: 0199729700 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780199729708
Издательство: Oxford Academ
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Цена: 14092 р.
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Автор: Bordman, Gerald
Название: American Theatre: A Chronicle of Comedy and Drama 1914-1930
ISBN: 0195090780 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780195090789
Издательство: Oxford Academ
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Цена: 11274 р.
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Автор: Bordman, Gerald
Название: American Theatre: A Chronicle of Comedy and Drama, 1930-1969
ISBN: 0195090799 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780195090796
Издательство: Oxford Academ
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Цена: 11274 р.
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Автор: Bordman, Gerald
Название: American Theatre
ISBN: 0195037642 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780195037647
Издательство: Oxford Academ
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Цена: 12079 р.
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Автор: Berghahn Volker R.
Название: American Big Business in Britain and Germany: A Comparative History of Two “Special Relationships ” in the 20th Century
ISBN: 0691171440 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780691171449
Издательство: Wiley
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Цена: 2888 р.
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While America s relationship with Britain has often been deemed unique, especially during the two world wars when Germany was a common enemy, the American business sector actually had a greater affinity with Germany for most of the twentieth century. “American Big Business in Britain and Germany” examines the triangular relationship between the American, British, and German business communities and how the special relationship that Britain believed it had with the United States was supplanted by one between America and Germany.

Volker Berghahn begins with the pre-1914 period and moves through the 1920s, when American investments supported German reconstruction rather than British industry. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to a reversal in German-American relations, forcing American corporations to consider cutting their losses or collaborating with a regime that was inexorably moving toward war. Although Britain hoped that the wartime economic alliance with the United States would continue after World War II, the American business community reconnected with West Germany to rebuild Europe s economy. And while Britain thought they had established their special relationship with America once again in the 1980s and 90s, in actuality it was the Germans who, with American help, had acquired an informal economic empire on the European continent.

Автор: Lorsch Jay W., Berlowitz Leslie, Zelleke Andy
Название: Restoring Trust in American Business
ISBN: 0262740273 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780262740272
Издательство: Wiley
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Цена: 461 р.
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Автор: Wilson
Название: American Business And Foreign Policy
ISBN: 0813155509 ISBN-13(EAN): 9780813155500
Издательство: Eurospan
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Цена: 4090 р.
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A History of the American Musical Theatre: No Business Like It Hurwitz Nathaniel Taylor&Francis 9780415715072 : From the diverse proto-theatres of the mid-1800s, though the revues of the 20

Explained | President’s Order scraps its predecessor and amends Article 370

The August 5 notification has been issued under Article 370 of the Constitution.

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President Ram Nath Kovind. | Photo Credit: PTI

The August 5 notification has been issued under Article 370 of the Constitution.

The President’s notification of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order of 2019 of August 5 amends Article 370 of the Indian Constitution and scraps its 65-year-old predecessor, The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order of May 14, 1954.

By junking the 1954 Order, the notification takes away the special rights and privileges enjoyed by the residents of Kashmir. It has effectively allowed the entire provisions of the Constitution, with all its amendments, exceptions and modifications, to apply to the area of Jammu and Kashmir. This is evident from the text of the August 5, 2019 notification. For one, the 2019 notification “supersedes” the 1954 Order. And two, it declares that “all the provisions of the Constitution, as amended from time to time, shall apply in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir”.

From the archives: The Hindu’s report on the President’s Order in J&K, 1954

The August 5 notification has been issued under Article 370 of the Constitution. In short, the government has employed Article 370, which had once protected the 1954 Order giving special rights to the people of Jammu and Kashmir, to scrap the sexagenarian Order.

So far, the Parliament had only residuary powers of legislation in J&K. This included enacted of laws to prevent terror and secessionist activities, for taxation on foreign and inland travel and on communication. Now, the Centre has proposed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill of 2019, which says the new Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir would be administered/governed like the Union Territory of Puducherry.

J&K to be largest Union Territory, followed by Ladakh

The Bill proposes wide powers to the Lieutenant Governor of the proposed Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir and makes it the “duty” of the Chief Minister of the Union Territory to “communicate” all administrative decisions and proposals of legislation with the LG. Moreover, all Central laws and State laws of J&K would apply to the new Union Territories of J&K and Ladakh. Assets and liabilities of J&K and Ladakh would be apportioned on the recommendation of a Central Committee within a year. Employees of State public sector undertakings and autonomous bodies would continue in their posts for another year until their allocations are determined. The police and public order is to be with the Centre.

The tabling of the proposed Reorganisation Bill is also proof that the long reign of the 1954 Order has ended. The 1954 Order had introduced a proviso to Article 3, namely that “no Bill providing for increasing or diminishing the area of the State of Jammu and Kashmir or altering the name or boundary of that State shall be introduced in Parliament without the consent of the Legislature of that State”. That power of the State Legislature to give prior consent does not exist anymore. This has provided a free hand to the Centre to table the Reorganisation Bill.

The 1954 Order had also brought into existence Article 35A. This Article gave the State Legislature of Jammu and Kashmir exclusive power to define classes of persons who are/shall be permanent residents of the State; to confer permanent residents special rights and privileges and impose restrictions upon other persons from outside the State; make laws and conditions for State government employment, acquisition of immovable property, settlement rights, scholarships and other forms of aid from the State government.

Revocation of Article 370 brings a new morning to J&K people: Dinesh Sharma

With the removal of the 1954 Order, the power of the State Legislature ceases to exist and Parliamentary laws, including that of reservation, would apply to Jammu and Kashmir as it does in other parts of the country. The government called this the end of “positive discrimination” and the closing of the “chasm” between residents of J&K and citizens of other parts of the country.

The removal of the 1954 Order further also negates a clause which was added to Article 352. The Order had mandated that no proclamation of Emergency on grounds “only of internal disturbance or imminent danger shall have effect” in the State unless with the concurrence of the State government.

The second part of the August 5, 2019 notification deals with the addition of a new clause to Article 367 which amends the proviso to clause (3) of 370. Article 367 deals with the applicability of the General Clauses Act 1897 to interpret the provisions of the Constitution,.

The August 5 notification amends the expression “Constituent Assembly”, contained in the proviso to clause (3) of Article 370, to mean “Legislative Assembly”.

Clause (3) of Article 370 gives the President power to end the special rights and privileges of the people of Jammu and Kashmir under the 1954 Order. However, the clause carries a rider. That is, the President would have to first get the consent of the Constituent Assembly of J&K before issuing such a notification. This rider or check on the President’s power was intended to give the people of the State a say in their own future.

Now, the Constituent Assembly has ceased to exist since 1956, when it was dissolved. The Assembly, at the time of its dissolution, had said nothing about the abrogation of Article 370. Consequently, Article 370, though it resides among the ‘temporary provisions’ of the Constitution, is deemed have become a permanent feature of the Constitution.

We have lost our identity, say people of Kashmir as government scraps Article 370

The August 5 notification has tided over this obstacle of a non-existent ‘Constituent Assembly’ by amending the expression in the proviso to ‘Legislative Assembly’. Ideally, any such amendment to the name of the ‘Constituent Assembly’ would require the assent of the Constituent Assembly itself. Besides, an amendment in Article 370 should have undergone the constitutional amendment procedure envisaged under Article 368 of the Constitution.

But the government can, on the other hand, argue that the amendment made in its August 5 notification only applies to Jammu and Kashmir and not the entire Dominion of India, and so, does not require a constitutional amendment. This point of contention may reach the Supreme Court, where several petitions on the constitutionality of Article 35A, and in consequence Article 370, are pending for adjudication.

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The August 5 notification has been issued under Article 370 of the Constitution. ]]>